This process course will focus on therapeutic action. Using material from candidates' ongoing analytic material, we will attempt to link what is suggested in the literature, how those perspectives contribute or inhibit change, what might constitute moments of change or stalemate, and how can one tell if change has taken place. The later readings will serve as an introduction into the next segment that will take up more contemporary articles and focus more on countertransference. This series serves to integrate the fourth year series on Countertransference , with particular attention to how the analyst’s efforts to bring about change reflect the incorporation and integration of different theories of therapeutic action – i.e.: “what did the analyst think she was doing to the patient when she did that?” Selected readings on contemporary views of therapeutic action will enrich the discussion of candidate presentationsof case material.